Exploration of a system or network to identify potential security vulnerabilities, known as penetration testing, is a process used to evaluate the security of the system.
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Gathering of information: what is it?
In the realm of cyber security, the practice of collecting data on a potential target is referred to as an information-gathering mission. This is commonly employed in penetration testing, network security monitoring, and various other security-related tasks.
Familiarizing oneself with the techniques employed by cybercriminals for gathering information about possible targets is essential for detecting and preventing any unauthorized data acquisition on one’s network.
Gathering data is an important step for any cybersecurity job, as it allows the user to become more familiar with the target systems and networks, thus enabling them to form a well-thought-out action plan for their attack.
Being a cybersecurity consultant necessitates the acquisition of the ability to collect data. This involves collecting and scrutinizing details regarding the target and any security gaps that may be present.
When undertaking an information-gathering task, one should carefully consider what type of data concerning the target system is desired to be obtained.
Kali Linux is an effective OS that has an array of tools for different information gathering objectives.
A playbook has been created to assist in the development of cybersecurity talent. This is meant to help organizations obtain the necessary skills and knowledge required to protect their networks and data from cyber threats. It consists of detailed information on preparing for, finding, and hiring cybersecurity professionals, as well as building a sustainable talent pipeline.
What type of data can be collected using Kali?
Depending upon the target, their defenses and the mission’s aim, the type of data collected will vary. The amount of time allocated should also be taken into account. These are some of the possible items that can be acquired:
- Examine domain and subdomain DNS records
- Monitor Intrusion Detection and Prevention Systems (IDS/IPS) events
- Utilize network scanning to discover ports, MAC addresses and banner grabbing of a target system
- Identify the operating systems present, as well as any vulnerabilities for exploits
- Explore routing and network configurations
- Investigate any open ports providing information about the server and its software and services
- Determine user accounts logged into the target system and their privileges
- Review SMB open network shares, as well as running processes with non-privileged access
- Analyze Secure Socket Layer (SSL) certificates to verify system or website protectio
- Inspect Virtual Private Networks (VPNs) running on the network and confirm authorization
- Investigate Voice over IP (VoIP) protocols on their own Virtual Local Area Network (VLAN) and assess packet interception
- Examine emails for potential phishing or ransomware payloads
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What techniques can be utilized to obtain data using Kali?
Kali Linux offers three of the most effective functions.
1. The Domain Name System of Kali Linux
Kali Linux contains a Domain Name System (DNS) that grants users access to the internet. It is a crucial component of the operating system, allowing users to search for web pages and other resources on the internet.
Kali Linux DNS offers the capability to redirect a link to a website of your choice, such as a web server. This can be utilized to set up a false login page, where unsuspecting users can input their credentials like a username and password. Furthermore, a malicious payload can be included in the simulated website, which can be triggered by a user click or a download, potentially allowing access to additional targets.
2. Intrusion Detection System/Intrusion Prevention System (IDS/IPS)
Tools like IDS and IPS are designed to safeguard networks, identify any weak spots and stop malicious traffic. IDS detect any breaches that occur, while IPS can stop them before they happen.
3. Examining networks
Network scanning is an activity that involves looking closely at the structure of a particular network. This process can be used to identify any potential security vulnerabilities and to ensure that the network is functioning properly.
To discover all of the systems on a network, one may employ services such as port scanners, service fingerprinting, or ARP spoofing (altering the way data is sent between computers).
What resources can I access with the help of Kali?
Using Nmap is an excellent way to scan networks and explore the devices connected to them. It is a powerful tool that can be used to detect open ports, services, and other information related to the devices on the network.
Nmap is an app utilized by security professionals to detect hosts that are connected to a network and perform port scanning. This program is helpful for a variety of purposes, such as discovering ports that are accessible and may be potential targets of malicious hackers, or recognizing the operating system so that any weak spots may be taken advantage of.
2. The Metasploit Framework
The Metasploit Framework provides users with the capability to exploit security vulnerabilities and create security testing tools. It is a popular open-source platform used by penetration testers, security analysts, and ethical hackers. It can be used to discover security flaws and verify the effectiveness of security measures.
The Metasploit framework, renowned for its ease of use, is a highly-regarded tool among security experts for conducting information-gathering activities. Its accessibility makes it a viable option for both white hat hackers and malicious actors alike in identifying network and server weaknesses.
3. Utilizing Maltego
Maltego is an effective tool for conducting online investigations.
Maltego provides users with the capacity to perform data mining through the use of graphical representation, as well as network analysis and visualization. It is useful for tasks that require collecting data, such as constructing IP ranges, mapping out domains and discovering related devices on a network.
4. Utilizing Wireshark
A popular tool for packet analysis is Wireshark. It is a free, open-source program that allows users to inspect network traffic, troubleshoot network-related problems, and analyze data packets.
Wireshark is a widely utilized packet-capturing tool that is both used and recognized by cybersecurity experts, administrators and hackers. It captures the data from a network in the form of packets that hold a great deal of information. If you want to investigate a network, it is essential that you are familiar with Wireshark and how to use it.
5. Netcat Utilization
Netcat is a useful tool for network communication and management. It is capable of many tasks, such as port scanning, file transfers, port listening, and even remote command execution. It is a powerful tool for network administrators and security professionals.
Netcat is a useful program for establishing basic links between hosts. It is also able to be utilized alongside TCP and UDP protocols for various operations, such as port scanning or creating backdoor access. If ports are appropriately configured, it can both read and write data. Those who wish to pursue a career in cyber security or penetration testing will find it to their advantage to learn how to use Netcat.
What other activities can be accomplished with Kali Linux?
The Kali Linux operating system includes the Volatility suite of tools that can be used to conduct memory forensics. These tools can be used to analyze a memory image and provide information on the programs and files that were active when the image was taken.
If forensic work is to be done on a PC, using Kali you can boot it off a CD or USB and initiate a forensics mode as a boot option. This method won’t alter what is stored on the HDD, and the drives won’t be mounted automatically.
To lessen the likelihood of Kali corrupting the crucial evidence, it is best not to work on the original item but make a forensic copy instead. Fortunately, Kali makes this process straightforward.
Gaining a Deeper Understanding of the Capabilities and Applications of Kali
Kali Linux is an OS that provides a vast selection of applications for various data-gathering activities.
In this article, we have discussed several advantageous tools and the data needed to be collected while executing an info-gathering activity. If you are just starting out on your cybersecurity journey, then Kali is a great way to begin.